Showing posts with label Kama Kala. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Kama Kala. Show all posts

Friday, July 1, 2022

Kama Kala by Lala Kannoo

Kama Kala by Lala Kannoo
 

Kama Kala 

by 

Lala Kannoo

 
Kama-Kala : a comprehensive survey of erotics, rhetorics and science of music with special reference to sex psychology. by Lala Kannoo Mal ; with an introduction. Hindu sculpture. Erotic art. Erotic sculpture..

with THIRTY ILLUSTRATIONS by Lala Kannoo Mal, M.A., 
 
together with an introduction 
 
by 
 
Munshi Narayan Prasad Asthna, M.A, LL.B., VICE-CHANCELLOR, AGRA UNIVERSITY.
 
AND 
 
ADVOCATE, HIGH; COURT, ALLAHABAD.
Published by 
 
 THE PUNJAB SANSKRIT BOOK DEPOT. LAHORE.

1931.
 
 

 

 INTRODUCTION.



Archeological excavations, numismatic discoveries, paleographical, epigraphical and philological researches, paleontological and historical Studies, antiquarian explorations, linguistic surveys, Study of ancient Sanskrit manuscripts and many other similar pursuits have borne ample testimony to the past greatness and glory of India and have indisputably shown that her marvellous civilisation extends back into the periods of dim and hoary antiquity. A fresh tangible proof has been added to the existing record by the very recent excavations at Mohenjo-Daro in Sind and Harappa in the Punjab, which according to the eminent archaeologists and orientalists, brings India into the orbit of the widely flung chalcolithic culture. Much has been done towards unravelling the marvels of the India’s glorious past but much more Still remains to be done.

The mistaken theory of the western world that the Hindus’ achievements in the past extended only to the domains of philosophy and religion, has long been exploded and the inevitable consciousness is dawning upon it that there is no field of literature sacred and profane in which Hindus have not achieved their own triumphs. Indian Painting, Indian Music, Indian Dancing and similar arts are rapidly making their way into western civilised countries and extorting tributes of their admiration. Indian erotics and Sex Psychology have, however, yet remained a hidden treasure to them. The author of the Kama-Kala has endeavoured to attraft the pointed attention of the western world to these subjefts. “ The erotic sentiment ” in the eloquent words of the author “ has, in India, formed the back-ground of illumination to all its poetic, dramatic and rhetorical literature ; and it is under its mild, soft and inspiring light that the most exquisite produ&ions of Hindu literature have bloomed into their splendour.
 
All the beauties of the fine arts of India are so many variegated and myriad-tinted prisms to refleft the soft, subtle and gentle rays of Love’s far off radiance behind them.” The ancient Hindu writers have exhaustively dealt with both the science of Love and the art of Love, and Kama- Kala is a comprehensive survey of both, written in a language which cannot but arrest the interest of even the moSt indifferent reader. The importance of the subjeft is now more than ever realised in the western countries. Social workers, clergymen and other thinkers in England and America are insisting upon imparting knowledge of sex psychology to young Students. 

Of all the ancient Hindu writers on Sex Psychology mentioned at page 7 of the book, Vatsyayana occupies the highest place and his name as an unimpeachable authority on the subject has travelled far into the western countries. Captain Havelock Ellis has made a pointed reference to Vatsyayana in his world-famous work on Sex Psychology, but as Vatsyayana’s work and commentaries thereon are entirely in Sanskrit, its beauties have not yet been laid open before the western world and English educated public. A brief survey of the leading and salient features of Vatsyayana’s work on Sex Psychology given n this book is therefore most welcome. It presents an interesting view-point of the ancient Hindus on the subject which should never be negle&ed by the readers of the modern books on Sex Psychology.

It may be observed that the special merit of ancient Hindu writers lies in that they are thorough-going and outspoken in the treatment of the subject, but in all the exuberance of their frankness and outspokenness which may appear a little offensive to the touchy sentiments of the modern world, they never say a word that would violate the sanctity of the canons of Ethics. It is clearly laid down that the sexual science was never elaborated to Stimulate indulgence in illicit love by young men nor to place a premium upon their l ibidinou s propensities. 

Among the many topics with which the book deals. Four great ideals. Sixty-four Kalas, Vasgraha, Daily life of a man of fashion and tastes, Gassification of men and women with special reference to love affairs. Duties of a wife, and the various classifications of heroes and heroines with their different moods, conditions and relations, are well worth perusal. To foreign writers, poets, novelists and dramatists this would be a revelation which would throw new light on their productions, if they are tinftured with the essence of Hindu Erotics. 

The portion of the book on Music is replete with new features. The ancient texts on Hindu Music no doubt give the personified portraitures of Ragas and Ragims but it is the creditable work
of the author to subjeCt these personifications to the crucial teSt of rhetorical interpretations and then to educe from them the sentiments which pervade them and thus make them legible for particular songs. In other words, the question what ought to be the content of the songs with reference to Ragas and Raginis has been solved for the first time. Thus you cannot sing a song full of martial spirit in Bhairavi which is meant only for the expression of the sen timents of peace, harmony and devotion. 

The illustrations of the book-half-tone and tri-colour are very interesting and the bonafide work of the recognised schools of painting in mediaeval India, when this art was liberally re- cognised by the then rulers and potentates. They bear ample testimony to the artistic abilities of the painters of the time. The value of the book has greatly been enhanced by the inclusion of these illustrations. 

The author Lala Kannoo Mal, M.A., is a sound scholar of both Eastern and Western literature and has written a number of books to place Eastern Ideals — more especially — the Indian Ideals before the Western world. He enjoys a wide reputation as a writer of both Hindi and English articles on philosophy and religion but this book would show that he is not lacking in the mastery of other branches of Hindu literature. I congratulate the author upon the new line he has Struck and am hopeful that his efforts to popularise the ancient literature of India and its implications will be crowned with success.


NARAYAN PRASAD ASTHNA,

Vice-Chancellor, Agra University, and

Advocate, High Court, Allahabad.

The 7th, October 1931. 

 
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Friday, June 24, 2022

Kama Kala by Mulk Raj Anand

 
Kama Kala by Mulk Raj Anand

Kama Kala 

by 

Mulk Raj Anand

 
 

Kama Kala. Some Notes on the Philosophical Basis of Hindu Erotic Sculpture.

Geneva: Nagel Publishers, (1962). 45 pp. + 58 pp. Illus. with 85 color & b/w plates (16 tipped-in).

Mulk Raj Anand (1905 - 2004), Indian novelist and art critic, is considered a founder of the English-language Indian novel.

 

PREFACE

 

 Some time ago a pioneer American critic of Indian art wrote, deploring the fact that while many of the sculptures of Konarak were masterpieces, they could not, for obvious reasons, be published to the world. This apologetic utterance may have been forced by a tradition which has passed, in Europe and America, from the period of ungovemed greed to the period of good intentions. 

Dr. Allex Comfort has brilliantly described this phenomenon: "The terroristic god of Vktorianism is gone, but he has left his footprints in the minds of a whole generation of parents and the obsessional traits of their children. Ritualistic cleanliness has replaced the older squalor!" 

The outer concern for health and discipline, according to most enlightened medical opinion, generally betokens an insecurity of the inner life, expressed in psychosomatic disorder, obsessional and depressive patterns. in bee inadequacy and delinquency. 

This delinquency, whether it may be of the minor forms, recognised by the law, or the more dangerous types, which lead b aggression by the desire for domination over others, is essentially a sign of prematurity or of the survival of barbarism. 

If the Mad Hatters tea party”, which is our present world society, is sadistic at every step, both overtly and covertly, it is because masochism becomes the main attribute of citizenship under barbarism. A code of morals drawn up by, and for, nomadic tribes, in a patriarchal society, has received accretions from Christian and other monastical orders .and exercises vigilant control on our lives, ready to detect and punish, through the policeman, normal human impulses, even when the primitive codes have ceased to find acceptance or belief among enlightened men. 

The name of such a society is death, not life! Its symbols are the concentration camp, the conscript and the hydrogen bomb.

Now, in the agrarian and pastoral forms of Indian civilisation and culture, love, in all its spiritual and sexual connotations, was frankly accepted and clothed in the beautiful imagery of exalted poetry, in words, colours and stones. The life-principle was worshipped through the subtle doctrines of the Hindu (Kaula) (noble) cult as well as through magical beliefs, rituals and practices, intended to release the unconscious through the play function of sex. 

The “One” supreme God, Brahman, had according to legend split himself into the “many”, through desire. And the “many” sought to become “one” through the same desire. 

The union of male andfemale thus became the ymbol,from the earliest times, for the union of all forces, and the pleasure of the body in mating became, under accepted religious and social forms, linked with the sanctity of procreation, and an end in itself The concept of original sin and sexual secretiveness never famed any part of the intense phases of Indian culture.

There were, undoubtedly bad periods of regression and suicidal fury, when patriarchal puritanism sought to control society. Also, certain decadent farms flourished in periods of regression. 

But, by and large, he dominant impression which Hindu and Buddhist civilizations give vs is of a tender humanism, in touch with the natural forces of impulse and ideat and aware of all those sensibilities which go to make the full, rich life of man into the poetry of existence rather than the nenovs prose of endemic variety. 

Thus it was that , in Indian plastic arts, the human form became the expression of the sculptor's vision of the life force. The abstract values of religion were always realized in the concrete imagery of the human body, exaggerated and dramatized to the supernatural proportions of gods and goddesses, but instinct with the sap of life. And, in the imagery of the yakshas, nymphs, fauns, dryads, celestial dancers, demigods and urges the inner tensions of nature are rendered with conviction and mastery. 

In such an atmosphere, it is not surprising that the Mithuna (loving) couples abound, from the earliest cave temples though the mediaeval period down till the 18th century, as the very consecration of the drama of sex energy, flowing in myriads of forms. And, almost always, they are caned without any suggestion of pornography, but with the utmost tenderness and sensuous beauty. 

Until recently some of the European attics have, for one reason or another, denied the essential values of Indian sculpture. For instance, the late Mr. Roger Fry said in Air Last Lectures: ''Hindu art is singular in thus combining an extraordinary control offree plastic movement with a marked indifference to the structural mechanism. The Hindu artist's imagination is jo enthralled by his feeling for the undulating and yielding movements of the body as a whole, and his feeling for the surface quality of the flesh replaces all his emphasis on these aspects, to the exclusion of that fundamental structure which occupied the other great schools of plastic design." 

As my friend Mr. Rudy von Leyden has suggested: “ This statement mistakes the effect for the cause.  Indian plastic art has an extraordinary capacity to imagine the surging forces of life in the inanimate matter of reck. The expanding forces are held, so to speak, by the surface that gives and contains like the skin of a fruit or even the skin of human flesh. There is no special preoccupation with the surface quality of flesh (as a matter of fact, the ancient sculptor may have ignored that quality by plastering and painting the surface) but rather a preoccupation with the essence of life which determines the surface and its swelling contour " 

Similarly, the objections of critics like Fry to the mithuna sculptures as introducing "irrelevant" interest into carving to distract the attention from the purpose of a work of art, cannot any longer be sustained. For many of the younger critics of Indian art in Europe themselves reject the desiccating effects of the previous generations of puritanism. 

It is with a view to presenting the actual data of human form in Indian sculpture, particularly of the kind which has so far evoked the wrath of puritans, that I hate put forward the beautiful plates of four talented photographers, Raymond Bumier, Sunil Jaheh, Moti Ram Jain and DM, Sahiar. The photoprints will by themselves, I hope, reproduce the plastic qualities, inherent in this kind of sculpture, in bold relief. But I have added a tentative exposition of the philosophical and religious basis of Hindu erotic art, which may explain the inner basis of this art. 

I have been encouraged by many friends to put out this essay and I wish to record my appreciation of their generous criticism. I must mention the help I have received from Dr. Hermann Goetz,, Dr, Stella Kramnik and Mr. George Keyt in my various studies. My publisher, Dr. Louis Nagelt showed immense patience in the production of the book. And the two friends, who have been my companions in recent wanderings among books and physical sites, will find my gratitude acknowledged in the dedication.
 

M.R.A.

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